# Math and Baseball

The baseball season is just warming up and the playoffs are around the corner. Why not bring “America’s Pastime” into the math classroom? The following problems challenge students to exercise some of the skills they learn in the middle school curriculum.

Baseball Fantasy
These two activities from PBS Mathline have pairs of students act as co-managers of a baseball team. Each pair receives a pack of baseball cards. They compute and analyze the key statistical data of the given players, make decisions on who they want to keep and who they want to trade, arrange their lineups, and play simulated games. Students use the key statistical data to construct individual player spinners, determine the line up, and play a simulated baseball game. The ultimate goal is to be the manager of the winning team of the Fantasy Baseball World Series.

What Is Round, Hard and Sold for \$3 Million?
This activity challenges students to determine which is worth more today: Babe Ruth’s 1927 home-run record-breaking ball or Mark McGwire’s 70th home-run ball that sold in 1999 for \$3 million. Compound interest is the main topic.

Who’s On First Today?
In this activity, students use hits and at-bat statistics to determine which of two baseball players has a better batting average.

Fun with Baseball Stats
In this lesson plan, students use baseball cards to convert statistics to decimals, fractions and percentages. Then, they use their statistics in playing a game. Activity sheets can be downloaded.

Come to the Middle School Portal 2: Math and Science Pathways online network to discuss this and many other topics and connect with colleagues!

# Pandemics and Their Numbers

Everywhere our students are hearing about the HINI influenza. Their interest offers an opportunity to co-teach with a science teacher in an investigation of what we know and don’t know about this pandemic. The New York Times has created an interdisciplinary lesson Pandemic Panic: Researching the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic that asks students to inquire into the current influenza as advisers from multiple perspectives and to share factual information they learn with their classmates and school communities.

The lesson opens with students considering “what we know” and “what we want to know.” The investigation begins as student groups take on such roles as “health advisers” or “economic advisers” or “historical advisers.” “Statistics advisers” could be added, in my opinion. What do the numbers tell us? FluView from the CDC 2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 38 ending September 26, 2009, gives great graphs of several types, some with an over-abundance of information that students will have to sort, select, and make sense of for themselves and their classmates. Statistics and percentages are topics that take on real meaning here.

If the class becomes interested in other diseases that have affected the world, they could research such epidemics as yellow fever. To get them into the story, look into Yellow Fever and the Reed Commission. They could research the number of victims over time and create a timeline from when the disease first reached the present United States up to the discovery of how to control it. A google search on “number of victims from yellow fever” brings up a few good sources, such as an August 10, 1879, article from The New York Times and another from September 24, 1897. Fascinating! But students will need to find other resources as well—encyclopedias and other books, offline as well as online.

If the information found is sufficient, they could calculate rates of change over the course of different decades. Were there times when the disease rates rose more quickly? When they did not change at all? You could explore with them the concept of the slope of a line, what it actually tells us. Your students will find that numbers tell interesting stories!

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updated 12/07/2011.

# What’s the Average?

Students often answer with the formula: “Add all the numbers together and divide, etc.” with no strong idea of what “average” means. Few adults, in fact, distinguish among the measures of central tendency: mean, median, and mode, but tend to lump them into a general idea of “what’s typical” of the data. Not a bad place to start, but insufficient for understanding the wealth of statistics that overwhelm us in today’s world.

The first activities here immerse students in working with mean, median, and mode both visually and interactively. They will be confronted constantly with the differences among the three concepts of average. The second set offers problems to challenge them to use these statistics in problem situations, such as finding how average temperature changes with distance from the equator.

Describing Data Using Statistics
Investigate the mean, median, mode, and range of a data set through its graph. Manipulate the data and watch how these statistics change (or, in some cases, how they don’t change).

Understanding Averages
Written for the student, this tutorial on mean, median, and mode includes fact sheets on the most basic concepts, plus practice sheets and a quiz. Key ideas are clearly defined at the student level through graphics as well as text.

Plop It!
Users click to easily and quickly build a bar graph and view how the mean, median, and mode change as entries are added to the graph. An efficient tool for viewing these statistics visually.

Comparing Properties of the Mean and the Median Through the Use of Technology
Seven points appear on a number line, 0 to 400. As students move one or more of these points along the line, the effects on the mean and median are immediately displayed. Questions challenge students to explore these measures of center; for example, What happens if you pull some of the data values way off to one extreme or the other?

Working hours: How much time do teens spend on the job?
This activity challenges students to interpret a bar graph (showing only percentages), to determine the mean number of hours teenagers work per week. A more complicated and interesting problem than it may seem at first glance! A full solution sets out the math in detail. Related questions ask students to calculate averages for additional data sets.

The Global Sun Temperature Project
This web site allows students from around the world to work together to determine how average daily temperatures and hours of sunlight change with distance from the equator. Students learn to collect, organize, and interpret data. Classrooms can participate in the project each spring and each fall. You will find project information, lesson plans, and implementation assistance at the site.

Train Race
In this interactive game, students compute the mean, median, and range of the running times of four trains, then select the one train that will get to the destination on time. Players extend their basic understanding of these statistics as they try to find the most reliable train for the trip. Students can select one of three levels of difficulty. There are tips for students as well as a full explanation of the key instructional ideas underlying the game.

# Math in Spring and Summer Sports

In the springtime, some middle school students enjoy outdoor sports much more than they enjoy their math classes. Why not use two of these popular sports to our advantage in the classroom? The following problems with baseball and track themes challenge students to exercise some of the skills they learn in the middle school curriculum.

What Is Round, Hard and Sold for \$3 Million?
This activity challenges students to determine which is worth more today: Babe Ruth’s 1927 home-run record-breaking ball or Mark McGwire’s 70th home-run ball that sold in 1999 for \$3 million. Compound interest is the main topic.

Who’s On First Today?
In this activity, students use hits and at-bat statistics to determine which of two baseball players has a better batting average.

Fun with Baseball Stats
In this lesson plan, students use baseball cards to convert statistics to decimals, fractions and percentages. Then, they use their statistics in playing a game. Activity sheets can be downloaded.

Can You Run As Fast As a Car?
This activity asks the student to determine if Florence Griffith-Joyner moved faster than a car traveling 15 miles per hour when she ran 10 meters at a record-breaking 0.91 seconds during the Seoul Olympics. Along with the answer, students will find a description of how to make unit conversions and other problems related to conversions of units of measure for volume, distance, currency, and temperature.