Citizen Science Projects

I came across this post – 12 Days of Christmasy Citizen Science Projects – and thought I would share some of my favorite Citizen Science Projects. One thing to remember – just because the word “science” is in the title doesn’t mean that these projects won’t fit into the middle school math curriculum. Many of these projects provide data sets that can be analyzed in a variety of ways!

If you would like to suggest other projects, please add them to the comments section.

Measure rain, snow, and hail:
CoCoRaHS (Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, & Snow)
Snowtweets

Track when leaves grow and flowers bloom in the spring:
National Phenology Network

Project Budburst

Observe migrating patterns:
National Audubon Society

Cornell Lab of Ornithology

Monarch Butterfly Studies

National Phenology Network

Monitor invasive species:
CitSci.org


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What Can Batting Averages Tell Us?

It’s the bottom of the 9th, 2 outs, bases loaded in the 7th game of the World Series. On the mound is the opposing team’s left-handed pitcher trying to close out the game. As the Head Coach you have a decision to make: let your left-handed 9th batter hitting .270 for the season go up and take his hacks, or pinch hit with your young, recently called-up rookie batting .350?

The first question we need to answer before making a decision is: What do the batting average numbers mean?

Batting averages are a simple decimal that approximates the number of hits per at-bat, or more simply the probability that a batter reached first base on a hit during his previous at-bats. The equation used to calculate batting average is simple: # Hits/# At-Bats.

A batting average is written in decimal form using 3 digits after the decimal point. Avid baseball readers read these as large numbers, so .400 would be read as “four-hundred” and .283 would be read as “two eighty-three.” Each individual thousandth is called a “point,” so .400 would be considered 117 points higher than .283.

But not all batting averages can be read equally. Two players can have the same batting average, take .300 for example, and have very different statistics. Player 1 could have 3 hits in 10 at-bats while player 2 may have 120 hits in 400 at-bats.

So which is a more accurate description of a player’s ability? Let’s take a look at what happens to the players after their next at-bat.

If they were to both get a hit in the next at-bat, their averages would indicate that Player 1 is much more likely to get a hit, yet if they both made an out the numbers would swing heavily in favor of Player 2.

The key to this discrepancy lies in the number of total at-bats. With more at-bats, the denominator for the fraction becomes larger and is less affected by adding 0 or 1 to the numerator. Referring to the chart, the next at-bat for Player 1 will either increase his average by 64 points or decrease it by 27. Player 2 will see either a 2 point increase or a 1 point decrease. So batting averages are less affected with larger numbers of at-bats, and can more accurately describe a hitter’s tendency over a period of time.

Now, looking back to the original question, I will add more context to the problem. In an average 162-game season a player might amass about 450 at-bats, and back-ups could see 100 at-bats. Rookies and recent call-ups (players invited to the major-league team from the minor leagues) will usually be on the team for the final 50 games of the season.

Knowing this information and having seen the chart from above, does this change your original decision for what to do? Why or why not? There is no definitive correct answer to this question, but I do ask that you use numbers to support your reasoning. Please post your decisions in the comments.


We Want Your Feedback
We want and need your ideas, suggestions, and observations. What would you like to know more about? What questions have your students asked? We invite you to share with us and other readers by posting your comments. Please check back often for our newest posts or download the RSS feed for this blog. Let us know what you think and tell us how we can serve you better. We appreciate your feedback on all of our Middle School Portal 2 publications. You can also email us at msp@msteacher.org. Post updated 11/27/2011.


This post was originally posted in the Everyday Explanations – Answers to Questions Posed on a Middle School Bus Ride by Sean Mittleman. We have his permission to re-post in the MSP2 blog.

Let’s Go to a Math Fair!

How could we organize a math fair? And what kinds of projects would our students present? I’m not thinking here of projects that would be judged, as in a science fair, but rather investigations and activities that would engage middle school students and be presented for the whole school as well as parents. One idea comes from a 7th grade class at Frisbie Middle School in Rialto, California.

Multicultural Math Fair
Ten activities for the fair, each based on a different cultural heritage, are well described in both Spanish and English. Included here are tips on how to set up a math fair as well as student handouts and free software for specific activities, such as the Tower of Hanoi. You will also find links to resources for related activities, such as studying symmetry and patterns in Navajo rugs. A unique teacher-created site!

If you are looking for more project ideas, here are some I think would make great fair presentations and involve students in learning sound math:

Pascal’s Triangle
Here are three ways to explore the famous triangle: by finding patterns and relations within the triangle, solving a pizza toppings problem in Antonio’s Pizza Palace, or working with an interactive web unit. The set of three investigations could work well as one fair project.

The Noon Day Project: Measuring the Circumference of the Earth
In the course of this online project, students learn about Eratosthenes and his experiment, do a similar experiment by collaborating with other schools, and analyze and reflect on the collected data to determine the accuracy of their measurements and what they learned. The project provides detailed instructions, activities, reference materials, online help, and a teacher area.

The Data Library
This web site contains an extensive list of ongoing data-sharing projects that would work well as fair projects. It also offers a great set of links to data on population, baseball stats, minimum wage, etc., excellent for students working on any statistics project.

Polyhedra in the Classroom
A set of activities developed for middle school students on aspects of polyhedra. The teacher-creator, Suzanne Alejandre, includes not only instructions for each activity but also assessment suggestions and her mathematical objectives for the unit.

Down the Drain
This Internet-based collaborative project allows students to share information about water usage with other students from around the country and the world. Based on data collected by their household members and their classmates, students determine the average amount of water used by one person in a day. They then compare this to the average amount of water used per person per day in other parts of the world. Students publish reports, photos, or other work for the fair presentation.


We Want Your Feedback
We want and need your ideas, suggestions, and observations. What would you like to know more about? What questions have your students asked? We invite you to share with us and other readers by posting your comments. Please check back often for our newest posts or download the RSS feed for this blog. Let us know what you think and tell us how we can serve you better. We appreciate your feedback on all of our Middle School Portal 2 publications. You can also email us at msp@msteacher.org. Post updated 10/10/2011.

Pandemics and Their Numbers

Everywhere our students are hearing about the HINI influenza. Their interest offers an opportunity to co-teach with a science teacher in an investigation of what we know and don’t know about this pandemic. The New York Times has created an interdisciplinary lesson Pandemic Panic: Researching the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Pandemic that asks students to inquire into the current influenza as advisers from multiple perspectives and to share factual information they learn with their classmates and school communities.

The lesson opens with students considering “what we know” and “what we want to know.” The investigation begins as student groups take on such roles as “health advisers” or “economic advisers” or “historical advisers.” “Statistics advisers” could be added, in my opinion. What do the numbers tell us? FluView from the CDC 2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 38 ending September 26, 2009, gives great graphs of several types, some with an over-abundance of information that students will have to sort, select, and make sense of for themselves and their classmates. Statistics and percentages are topics that take on real meaning here.

If the class becomes interested in other diseases that have affected the world, they could research such epidemics as yellow fever. To get them into the story, look into Yellow Fever and the Reed Commission. They could research the number of victims over time and create a timeline from when the disease first reached the present United States up to the discovery of how to control it. A google search on “number of victims from yellow fever” brings up a few good sources, such as an August 10, 1879, article from The New York Times and another from September 24, 1897. Fascinating! But students will need to find other resources as well—encyclopedias and other books, offline as well as online. 

If the information found is sufficient, they could calculate rates of change over the course of different decades. Were there times when the disease rates rose more quickly? When they did not change at all? You could explore with them the concept of the slope of a line, what it actually tells us. Your students will find that numbers tell interesting stories! 


We Want Your Feedback
We want and need your ideas, suggestions, and observations. What
would you like to know more about? What questions have your
students asked? We invite you to share with us and other readers
by posting your comments. Please check back often for our newest
posts or download the RSS feed for this blog. Let us know what
you think and tell us how we can serve you better. We appreciate
your feedback on all of our Middle School Portal 2
publications. You can also email us at msp@msteacher.org. Post
updated 12/07/2011.

Math Students Collaborating Nationwide, Even Worldwide!

There are middle school projects that gain impact through collaboration with students outside your own classroom, such as estimating the average amount of water used per person per day. This problem takes on deeper relevance when averages are compared to those of classrooms around the country and the world. Other projects, such as finding the circumference of the Earth, require data input by geographically distant schools. 

To connect with and collaborate with classrooms interested in the same project, you can make use of online sites, even though you work in an offline classroom. You need Internet access to register for the project (free registration!), to find suggested teaching procedures, and to submit and retrieve data from other schools. But you can be offline while teaching the lessons, collecting and analyzing data, and presenting results. 

The Internet-based projects below are excellent samples of what’s available online for the offline classroom. If you know of similar projects, please share via this blog! 

Down the Drain: How Much Water Do You Use?  

In this project, students share information about water usage with other students from around the country and the world. Based on data collected by their household members and their classmates, students determine the average amount of water used by one person in a day. Students must develop a hypothesis, conduct an experiment, and present their results.

RoadKill 

If your school is located among rural roads, you and your students can collect roadkill data in your community for analysis and compare your data to other areas participating in the project. The site provides a detailed protocol for monitoring and reporting roadkill, a method of reporting data through the web, and access to data collected by all participants. The project crosses many disciplines, including environmental science education and data analysis.

The International Boiling Point Project

Students around the world boil water to discover what influences its boiling point. Is it room temperature, elevation, volume of water, or the heating device used? All you have to do is boil a bit of water, record a bit of information, and send it along to the site for inclusion in the database of results.

The Noon Day Project: Measuring the Circumference of the Earth 

 In the course of the project, students learn about Eratosthenes and his experiment, and then do a similar experiment themselves by collaborating with other schools. They learn the “why” of the measurements they’re taking, collect the data as precisely as possible, and submit their findings to the central site. By collaborating with a classroom in another state or even another country, they actually determine a good estimate of the Earth’s circumference. The site provides detailed instructions, activities, and reference materials.

We Want Your Feedback
We want and need your ideas, suggestions, and observations. What would you like to know more about? What questions have your students asked? We invite you to share with us and other readers by posting your comments. Please check back often for our newest posts or download the RSS feed for this blog. Let us know what you think and tell us how we can serve you better. We appreciate your feedback on all of our Middle School Portal 2 publications. You can also email us at msp@msteacher.org. Post updated 4/07/2012.