As teachers, we all want our students to understand those concepts underpinning addition and subtraction of fractionsâ€” the concept of equivalent fractions, in particular. These resources offer teaching ideas on both the concepts and the skills, including demonstrations of addition and subtraction as well as problems for practice. I looked hard for material that would visually or interactively engage middle school students. If you have ideas to share on how you teach these operations, please use the comments area to put them online.

Visual Fractions
An exceptional tutorial on fractions, including step-by-step, illustrated explanations of addition and subtraction. Both circle and line models help students visualize the operations with like and unlike denominators. Interactive problems allow students to use these visual models as they figure the numerical answers.

Students must do the usual exercise of finding equivalent fractions with common denominators, but here the fractions are represented visually as portions of a square. Once the computer checks that the fractions are correct, students can drag the representations into a third box and enter the sum of the fractions. This is a real learning experience!

The Fractionator
Created by math teacher Jeff LeMieux, the site offers online and offline tools to help students understand fractions. The online tools use unit squares to model two fractions to be added (or subtracted) and then create equivalent fraction models; with this visual aid, students complete the operation. They can request a new problem for each exercise or enter the two new fractions themselves. Also provided are links to printable materials.

Soccer Shootout
Practice time! Students can practice the addition and subtraction of fractions at levels of difficulty ranging from Easy to Super Brain. Students play against the computer and are provided with a full solution when a wrong answer is entered.

Classic Middle-Grades Problems for the Classroom
The king finds a bowl of mangoes and eats 1/6 of them; the queen eats 1/5 of the remaining mangoes; the prince eats 1/4, etc., until only 3 are left. How many were in the bowl to begin with? A complete lesson plan is given, including activity sheets. A thought-provoking problem to cap this work on fractions!

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